عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Bilevel programming, a tool for modeling decentralized decision problems, consists of the objective of the leader at its first level and that of the follower at the second level. Bilevel programming has been proved to be an Np-hard problem. Numerous algorithms have been developed for solving bilevel programming problems. These algorithms lack the required efficiency for solving a real problem. In this paper, attempts have been made to develop an algorithm based on Simulated Annealing (SA) Approach. This algorithm is efficient enough to find a near optimal solution. The proposed method is compared with the one developed by Mathieu et al  through application of both to a number of different problems.